Combining Robotics and Microfluidics: A Precision Arm for Miniature Robots

End Effector

Using a glass needle made to oscillate with the assistance of ultrasound, liquids can be manipulated and particles can be trapped. Credit: ETH Zurich

Most of us are familiar with robots that possess movable arms. These machines are commonly found in factory settings and are capable of performing various mechanical tasks. They can be programmed to perform a range of functions, and a single robot can carry out multiple tasks.

Up until now, robots equipped with movable arms have had limited connections with microfluidic systems that transport tiny quantities of liquid through delicate capillaries. These systems, known as microfluidics or lab-on-a-chip, were created by researchers to assist in laboratory analysis and typically rely on external pumps to circulate the liquid through the chips. However, automating such systems has been challenging, and the chips had to be custom-designed and manufactured for each individual application.

Ultrasound needle oscillations

Scientists led by ETH Professor Daniel Ahmed are now combining conventional robotics and microfluidics. They have developed a device that uses ultrasound and can be attached to a robotic arm. It is suitable for performing a wide range of tasks in microrobotic and microfluidic applications and can also be used to automate such applications. The scientists have reported on this development in <span class="glossaryLink" aria-describedby="tt" data-cmtooltip="

Nature Communications
&lt;em&gt;Nature Communications&lt;/em&gt; is a peer-reviewed, open-access, multidisciplinary, scientific journal published by Nature Portfolio. It covers the natural sciences, including physics, biology, chemistry, medicine, and earth sciences. It began publishing in 2010 and has editorial offices in London, Berlin, New York City, and Shanghai.&nbsp;

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The device comprises a thin, pointed glass needle and a piezoelectric transducer that causes the needle to oscillate. Similar transducers are used in loudspeakers, ultrasound imaging, and professional dental cleaning equipment. The ETH researchers can vary the oscillation frequency of their glass needles. By dipping the needle into a liquid they create a three-​dimensional pattern composed of multiple vortices. Since this pattern depends on the oscillation frequency, it can be controlled accordingly.

The researchers were able to use this to demonstrate several applications. First, they were able to mix tiny droplets of highly viscous liquids. “The more viscous liquids are, the more difficult it is to mix them,” Professor Ahmed explains. “However, our method succeeds in doing this because it allows us to not only create a single vortex but to also efficiently mix the liquids using a complex three-​dimensional pattern composed of multiple strong vortices.”

Second, the scientists were able to pump fluids through a mini-​channel system by creating a specific pattern of vortices and placing the oscillating glass needle close to the channel wall.

Third, they succeeded in using their robot-​assisted acoustic device to trap fine particles present in the fluid. This works because a particle’s size determines its reaction to the sound waves. Relatively large particles move toward the oscillating glass needle, where they accumulate. The researchers demonstrated how this method can capture not only inanimate particles but also fish embryos. They believe it should also be capable of capturing biological cells in the fluid. “In the past, manipulating microscopic particles in three dimensions was always challenging. Our microrobotic arm makes it easy,” Ahmed says.


“Until now, advancements in large, conventional robotics and microfluidic applications have been made separately,” Ahmed says. “Our work helps to bring the two approaches together.” As a result, future microfluidic systems could be designed similarly to today’s robotic systems. An appropriately programmed single device would be able to handle a variety of tasks. “Mixing and pumping liquids and trapping particles – we can do it all with one device,” Ahmed says. This means tomorrow’s microfluidic chips will no longer have to be custom-​developed for each specific application. The researchers would next like to combine several glass needles to create even more complex vortex patterns in liquids.

In addition to laboratory analysis, Ahmed can envisage other applications for microrobotic arms, such as sorting tiny objects. The arms could conceivably also be used in biotechnology as a way of introducing <span class="glossaryLink" aria-describedby="tt" data-cmtooltip="

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule composed of two long strands of nucleotides that coil around each other to form a double helix. It is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms that carries genetic instructions for development, functioning, growth, and reproduction. Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitochondria (where it is called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA).

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Reference: “A robot-assisted acoustofluidic end effector” by Jan Durrer, Prajwal Agrawal, Ali Ozgul, Stephan C. F. Neuhauss, Nitesh Nama and Daniel Ahmed, 26 October 2022, Nature Communications.
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-34167-y